If EPR reduction and equipotential grading aren’t practical measures, can high resistivity surfacing materials such as crushed aggregate and bitumen be relied upon to limit electric shock hazards for utility operators and maintenance staff and the public? Is 3kohmm crushed aggregate or 10k ohmm asphalt a realistic assumption for a designer to make? How do lab test results relate to field installation performance? How does the new work done by the IEEE task force help designers? This presentation evaluates the performance of series impedance insulation used as earthing system safety mitigation measures in the light of additional testing work undertaken and the inclusion of QRA within Australian standards for indirect shock risk management.